In the past, cigarette smoking and excessive alcohol intake were the greater risks for esophageal cancer. In 2012 was published some study in Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology journal that what Increase the risk of esophageal cancer is the inflammation of the tissue lining in the esophagus caused by chronic heartburn. Usually, heartburn is a symptom of acid reflux disease. But in case if this is occurring constantly, than it can be related with Barrett’s esophagus or esophageal cancer. Most of the esophageal cancer is adenocarcinoma, which develops in the glands at the bottom of the esophagus. Even though, still is not determined the exact cause of this cancer. There is many studies which shows that there is a progressive increase in risk for adenocarcinoma as the gastroesophageal reflux worsens.
When you are lying down, the mucous membranes of the esophagus become inflamed. That is because the chronic backwash of stomach acids goes up into the esophagus. In this case this can leads to changes in the tissues called metaplasia. This condition of having metaplastic changes in the esophagus is also known as Barret’s esophagus, a severe form of GERD. And if these changes still continue to happen in the esophagus and they are not prevented on time, metaplasia can becomes dysplasia. This is basically pre-cancer leading to high-grade dysplasia, where cancerous cells are now present. The last step is adenocarcinoma.
When you swallow, if you notice difficulty, it can be the first symptom of cancer. When you swallow solid foods, you will experience pain and also it will give you the sensation that something is stuck in your esophagus. After some time, you will start to experience these symptoms even with liquids. Yet another symptom is weight loss, in combination with a dull pain felt in the pit of the stomach and lower chest. You can notice the spread of the malignancy if you have a hoarse voice, a bone pain and a chronic cough.
Nowadays, adenocarcinoma of the esophagus is increasing even 6 times more than 3 decades ago. People after 60 are most affected OD this carcinoma. About 3 to 6 people in 100,000 develop adenocarcinoma of the esophagus, however, the percentages are increased in patients with GERD and significantly increased in those with Barrett’s esophagus. According to the statistics, the risk of adenocarcinoma with Barrett’s esophagus is about 10 in 100. Men are much more affected by this kind of carcinoma than women and the risk increases with age.
Firstly it is necessary to quit smoking. Also it is important to keep your weight down with a healthy diet and daily exercise. You should consume foods with lots of raw yellow and green vegetables and fruits. Make sure to avoid anything that can causes heartburn like onions, citrus, tomatoes, fried and spicy foods and chocolate. Also you should keep your alcohol intake moderate. In addition, it is known that tea is should be preventive but make sure not to drink liquids that are excessively hot because they can be harmful.